Turkey is considered to be the gateway between Europe and Asia; it is an Eurasian country located on the Mediterranean stretching across the Anatolian peninsula in southwest Asia and the Balkan region of southeastern Europe. It is bordered by the Black Sea, the Marmara Sea, the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea.
Turkey is known as having a long history with ancient cultural practices. In fact, the Anatolian peninsula (on which most of modern Turkey sits), is considered one of the oldest inhabited areas in the world. Around 1200 B.C.E, the Anatolian coast was settled by various Greek peoples and the important cities of Miletus, Ephesus, Smyrna and Byzantium (which later became Istanbul) were founded. Byzantium later became the capital of the Roman and Byzantine Empires.
The modern history of Turkey began in the early 20th century after Mustafa Kemal (later known as Ataturk) pushed for the founding of the Republic of Turkey in 1923 after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and a war for independence.
Today the government of Turkey is considered a republican parliamentary democracy. It has an executive branch that is made up a chief of state and a head of government (these positions are filled by the president and prime minister, respectively) and a legislative branch that consists of the unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey.
The climate of Turkey is temperate and it has high, dry summers and mild, wet winters. The more inland one gets however, the harsher the climate becomes.